Everything You Need To Know About The Electric Car
The electrification of the automobile market is forcing the user to adapt to a new way of understanding it, which not only involves getting used to the benefits of this type of vehicle but first of all to its vocabulary in order to understand it. In this best articles to read, Little by little, talk of gasoline, diesel, displacement, horses, or consumption is being stopped, to adapt terms such as hybrid, electric, kilowatts, or amps instead and these types of cars are available at Auto For Trade.
Until recently it was only possible to choose between diesel or gasoline cars, but with the electrification of the car, this offer has expanded significantly. Now the user can also choose between cars:
- BEV (Battery Electric Vehicle): better known as “electric”, they are cars that move with 100% electric propulsion with zero polluting emissions. These are recharged by regenerative braking and connected to the electrical network.
- HEV (Electric Hybrid Vehicle): “Hybrid” cars combine a combustion engine with a small electric motor that supports the former and allows a very limited number of kilometers to be traveled in 100% electric mode. Recharging is done through regenerative braking or using the engine as a generator.
- PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle): these are hybrid vehicles with a greater number of batteries, which extends their 100% electric autonomy to an average of 50 kilometers. These are recharged by regenerative braking, with the electrical network, or using the combustion engine as a generator.
- Mild Hybrid (micro-hybrid): these use small capacity batteries to power an oversized starter-generator that assists in the propulsion of the combustion engine at times of highest consumption, but cannot do so electrically by itself. It is recharged by regenerative braking.
- FCEV (Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle) or FCV (Fuel Cell Vehicle): known as “fuel cell” or “hydrogen cell” cars, they are the least common so far but a great future awaits them. They use hydrogen as a fuel to be propelled electrically and emit only water through the exhaust pipe.
- The 100% electric drives are simple but provide high performance
You also have to get used to using other terms to talk about vehicle performance. The capacity of the combustion engine is measured by its displacement, but in electric models, it is calculated from the capacity of its batteries in kWh (kilowatt-hours). A hybrid car usually offers 1.5 kW batteries; a plug-in hybrid around 12 kW and a pure electric can of the general segment be around 60 kW.
Power, for its part, is no longer in cv (horsepower) and is expressed in kW (kilowatts), although Nm (newton meter) is still used to calculate motor torque. Autonomy will emerge from the combination of the battery capacity and the power of the electric motor. This has stopped being calculated with the “lax” NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) cycle and is now done with the stricter and more realistic WLTP (Worldwide harmonized Light Vehicles Test Procedure). A hybrid model usually offers a 100% electric range of about 5 km in very favorable conditions; a plug-in hybrid can reach 50 km and a pure electric between 450 and 500 km in the best of cases.
Battery And Recharge Types
Finally, we must talk about the type of batteries and their recharge. The most widely used batteries today are lithium-ion batteries and it is divided into cells. There are also those made of lithium-ion polymer, which is an evolution of the former and everything seems to indicate that those that will dominate in the short-term future will be solid-state since they offer greater autonomy and performance.
Due to their large storage capacity, the batteries of electric cars and plug-in hybrids need to be recharged from the electricity grid. Recharging is today one of the main handicaps of the electric car due to the number of service points and the time it takes, although the number of public and private positions is growing exponentially, and large companies such as Endesa are offering comprehensive solutions so that recharging is no longer a problem.
Charging Point For Electric Vehicles
At a private level, for example, Endesa enjoys products such as its comprehensive recharging solution, which for less than 1 euro a day the user has everything they need: from installing the station in their own home, to maintenance. But it has also designed a public access recharging deployment plan thanks to which it will be possible to travel around Spain by electric car without autonomy problems since it will install 8,500 points in five years throughout the country. The first 2,000 will be enabled between this year and next.
Regarding the type of recharging, the car basically supports three modes: slow, semi-fast, and fast. The first is usually done through portable charging points for the home network, which takes between 5 and 8 hours to charge the battery to 80%. Semi-fast charging is offered through public and private charging stations (wall box), and with a current of about 230V and 32A, it allows charging the battery in a time that varies between 1 and 3 hours. While the fast is reserved almost exclusively for electric stations and service stations, and with about 600V and 400A it can recharge 80% of the battery in about 30 minutes.